Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD)

Opened for signature at Geneva: 18 May 1977 
 
Entered into force: 5 October 1978 
 
Depositary: Secretary-General of the United Nations 
State Signature Deposit Deposit Type
Afghanistan 22 October 1985  
Accession
Algeria 19 December 1991  
Accession
Antigua and Barbuda 25 October 1988  
Succession
Argentina 20 March 1987 *
Accession
Armenia 15 May 2002  
Accession
Australia 31 May 1978  
7 September 1984  
Ratification
Austria 17 January 1990 *
Accession
Bangladesh 3 October 1979  
Accession
Belarus 18 May 1977  
7 June 1978  
Ratification
Belgium 18 May 1977  
12 July 1982  
Ratification
Benin 10 June 1977  
30 June 1986  
Ratification
Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 18 May 1977  
Brazil 9 November 1977  
12 October 1984  
Ratification
Bulgaria 18 May 1977  
31 May 1978  
Ratification
Cameroon 18 April 2011  
Accession
Canada 18 May 1977  
11 June 1981  
Ratification
Cape Verde 3 October 1979  
Accession
Chile 26 April 1994  
Accession
China 8 June 2005 *
Accession
Costa Rica 7 February 1996  
Accession
Cuba 23 September 1977  
10 April 1978  
Ratification
Cyprus 7 October 1977  
12 April 1978  
Ratification
Czech Republic 22 February 1993 *
Succession
Democratic People's Republic of Korea 8 November 1984  
Accession
Democratic Republic of the Congo 28 February 1978  
Denmark 18 May 1977  
19 April 1978  
Ratification
Dominica 9 November 1992  
Succession
Egypt 1 April 1982  
Accession
Estonia 14 April 2011  
Accession
Ethiopia 18 May 1977  
Finland 18 May 1977  
12 May 1978  
Ratification
Germany 18 May 1977 *
24 May 1983 *
Ratification
Ghana 21 March 1978  
22 June 1978  
Ratification
Greece 23 August 1983  
Accession
Guatemala 21 March 1988 *
Accession
Holy See 27 May 1977  
Honduras 16 August 2010  
Accession
Hungary 18 May 1977  
19 April 1978  
Ratification
Iceland 18 May 1977  
India 15 December 1977  
15 December 1978  
Ratification
Iran (Islamic Republic of) 18 May 1977  
Iraq 15 August 1977  
Ireland 18 May 1977  
16 December 1982  
Ratification
Italy 18 May 1977  
27 November 1981  
Ratification
Japan 9 June 1982  
Accession
Kazakhstan 25 April 2005  
Accession
Kuwait 2 January 1980 *
Accession
Lao People's Democratic Republic 13 April 1978  
5 October 1978  
Ratification
Lebanon 18 May 1977  
Liberia 18 May 1977  
Lithuania 16 April 2002  
Accession
Luxembourg 18 May 1977  
Malawi 5 October 1978  
Accession
Mauritius 9 December 1992  
Accession
Mongolia 18 May 1977  
19 May 1978  
Ratification
Morocco 18 May 1977  
Netherlands 18 May 1977  
15 April 1983 *
Ratification
New Zealand 7 September 1984 *
Accession
Nicaragua 11 August 1977  
6 September 2007  
Ratification
Niger 17 February 1993  
Accession
Norway 18 May 1977  
15 February 1979  
Ratification
Pakistan 27 February 1986  
Accession
Panama 13 May 2003  
Accession
Papua New Guinea 28 October 1980  
Accession
Poland 18 May 1977  
8 June 1978  
Ratification
Portugal 18 May 1977  
Republic of Korea 2 December 1986 *
Accession
Romania 18 May 1977  
6 May 1983  
Ratification
Russian Federation 18 May 1977  
30 May 1978  
Ratification
Saint Lucia 27 May 1993  
Succession
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 27 April 1999  
Succession
Sao Tome and Principe 5 October 1979  
Accession
Sierra Leone 12 April 1978  
Slovakia 28 May 1993 *
Succession
Slovenia 20 April 2005  
Accession
Solomon Islands 19 June 1981  
Succession
Spain 18 May 1977  
19 July 1978  
Ratification
Sri Lanka 8 June 1977  
25 April 1978  
Ratification
Sweden 27 April 1984  
Accession
Switzerland 5 August 1988 *
Accession
Syrian Arab Republic 4 August 1977  
Tajikistan 12 October 1999  
Accession
Tunisia 11 May 1978  
11 May 1978  
Ratification
Turkey 18 May 1977 *
Uganda 18 May 1977  
Ukraine 18 May 1977  
13 June 1978  
Ratification
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 18 May 1977  
16 May 1978 *
Ratification
United States of America 18 May 1977  
17 January 1980  
Ratification
Uruguay 16 September 1993  
Accession
Uzbekistan 26 May 1993  
Accession
Viet Nam 26 August 1980  
Accession
Yemen 18 May 1977  
20 July 1977 *
Ratification

* A note, statement, declaration, or reservation, is attached to the signature or depository action. Click on the action date to view the details.

  Glossary of treaty-related terms

Number of Signatory States: 48
Number of States Parties: 76