Japan: Signature of Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)

State Japan
Treaty Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)
Action Type Signature
Depositary Government of the Russian Federation
Date 3 February 1970
Note

with declaration

Link to Russian text

Application at signing:

«The Government of Japan, believing that the proliferation of nuclear weapons would increase the danger of nuclear war, has always been in favour of the spirit underlying this Treaty, since the prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons is in accord with its policy with regard to the maintenance of world peace.
The Government of Japan is signing this Treaty on the basis of the fundamental position which is stated below.
The Government of Japan is convinced that this Treaty will serve as a first step towards nuclear disarmament and hopes that as many States as possible will adhere to this Treaty to make it effective. The Government of Japan hopes, especially, that the Government of the Republic of France and the People's Republic of China which possess nuclear weapons but have yet to express their intention of adhering to this Treaty will become parties thereto at an early date and pursue negotiations in good faith on nuclear disarmament and that they will refrain, even before that, from taking such actions as are contrary to the purposes of this Treaty.
This Treaty permits only the present nuclear-weapon States to possess nuclear weapons. This discrimination should ultimately be made to disappear through the elimination of nuclear weapons by all the nuclear-weapon States from their national arsenals. Until such time the nuclear-weapon States should be conscious of the fact that they have special responsibilities as a consequence of this special status.
The prohibition under this Treaty applies solely to the acquisition of nuclear weapons and other nuclear explosive devices and of control over them. Therefore, this Treaty must in no way restrict non-nuclear-weapon States in their research, development, or implementation of the peaceful use of nuclear energy, or in their international cooperation in these fields, nor must it subject them to discriminatory treatment in any aspect of such activities.
The Government of Japan wishes to state that it has a deep interest in the following matters in the light of its basic position stated above.
This Government stresses that it will also concern itself most vigorously with these matters when it decides to ratify the Treaty as well as when it participates in the review of its operation in the future as a party to the Treaty.
I. Disarmament and security
1. Under Article VI of the Treaty each State Party 'undertakes to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control'. The Government of Japan believes it essential for the attainment of the purposes of this Treaty that, above all, the nuclear-weapon States should take concrete nuclear disarmament measures in pursuance of this undertaking. As a member of the Committee on Disarmament, Japan is also prepared to cooperate in the furtherance of disarmament.
2. The Government of Japan deems it important that in the preamble to the Treaty there is a provision stating that 'in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, States must refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations'. It also wishes to emphasize that the nuclear-weapon States must not have recourse to the use of nuclear weapons or threaten to use such weapons against non-nuclear-weapon States.
3. The Government of Japan also attaches great importance to the declarations of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union affirming their intention to seek immediate Security Council action to provide assistance, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, to any non-nuclear-weapon State, party to the Treaty, that is a victim of an act of aggression or an object of a threat of aggression in which nuclear weapons are used, and hopes that the nuclear-weapon States will continue their studies with regard to effective measures to ensure the security of non-nuclear-weapon States.
4. The Government of Japan, pending its ratifications of this Treaty, will pay particular attention to developments in disarmament negotiations and progress in the implementation of the Security Council Resolution on the security of non-nuclear-weapon States and continue to make a close study of other problems which require consideration for the safeguarding of her national interests.
5. The Government of Japan takes note of the fact that Article X of the Treaty provides that: 'each Party shall in exercising its national sovereignty have the right to withdraw from the Treaty if it decides that extraordinary events, related to the subject matter of this Treaty, have jeopardized the supreme interests of its country'.
II. Peaceful uses of nuclear energy
1. The safeguards agreement to be concluded by Japan with the International Atomic Energy Agency in accordance with Article III of the Treaty must not be such as would subject her to disadvantageous treatment as compared with the safeguards agreements which other States Parties conclude with the same Agency, either individually or together with other States. The Government of Japan intends to give full consideration to this matter before taking steps to ratify the Treaty.
2. The Government of Japan greatly appreciates as a measure supplementing this Treaty, the declarations of the Governments of the United States and the United Kingdom, which are both nuclear-weapon States, that they will accept the application of safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency to all their nuclear activities, excluding only those directly related to their national security, and earnestly hopes that these assurances will be faithfully implemented. It also hopes most earnestly that the other nuclear-weapon States will take similar action.
3. Safeguards should be subject to the principle that they should be applied at certain strategic points of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the procedure for their application must be rational when considered from the point of view of cost-effectiveness and made as simple as possible by making the maximum use of material control systems of the respective countries. Furthermore, adequate measures must be taken to ensure that the application of safeguards does not cause the leakage of industrial secrets or otherwise hinder industrial activities. The Government of Japan hopes that the International Atomic Energy Agency will make constant efforts to improve safeguards in the light of technological developments with the above aims in mind. This Government is prepared to cooperate in such efforts and hopes that the States concerned will also cooperate to achieve this end.
4. The Government of Japan understands that no unfair burden in connection with the cost of applying safeguards will be imposed on the non-nuclear-weapon States to which such safeguards are to be applied.
5. The Government of Japan considers that, when safeguards are applied in accordance with the safeguards agreement to be concluded by Japan with the International Atomic Energy Agency under Article III of this Treaty, steps should be taken to arrange that such safeguards supersede the existing safeguards which are being applied in connection with Japan's cooperation with the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada in the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
6. Concrete measures should be taken to promote implementation of the provisions of Articles IV and V of the Treaty relating to International Cooperation for the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy and for the Peaceful Application of Nuclear Explosions. In particular, no peaceful nuclear activities in non-nuclear-weapon States shall be prohibited or restricted, nor shall the transfer of information, nuclear materials, equipment or other material relating to the peaceful use of nuclear energy be denied to non-nuclear-weapon States, merely on the grounds that such activities or transfers could be used also for the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices».
 
 
Application at signing:
«Today the Government of Japan is depositing its Instruments of Ratification of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons with the Governments of the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States, and Japan becomes a party to this Treaty.
Japan, as the only nation to have suffered atomic bombing, has consistently followed a fundamental policy of forsaking nuclear armament and has steadfastly pursued the foreign policy of a nation committed to peace under its peace constitution. On the occasion of the depositing of its Instruments of Ratification of this Treaty, the Government of Japan declares anew to the world this fundamental policy. It firmly believes that Japan's adherence to this Treaty will contribute to stability in international relations, and, in particular, to peace and stability in Asia.
Japan, as a party to this Treaty, is determined hereafter to intensify its efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and to contribute to international cooperation with respect to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
This Treaty permits only the 'nuclear-weapon states' to possess nuclear weapons and allows them a special status. The Government of Japan holds the belief that the nuclear-weapon states must rectify this discrimination in the future by totally abolishing their nuclear weapons. To achieve this end, the Government of Japan is determined to make special efforts for the furthering of nuclear disarmament.
On the basis of these fundamental considerations, the Government of Japan stresses especially the following points:
1. The Government of Japan hopes that as many states as possible, whether possessing a nuclear explosive capability or not, will become parties to this Treaty in order to make it truly effective. In particular, it strongly hopes that the Republic of France and the People's Republic of China, which possess nuclear weapons but are not parties to this Treaty, will accede thereto.
2. The Government of Japan urges the nuclear-weapon states, which have special responsibilities for nuclear disarmament, to take concrete nuclear disarmament measures such as the reduction of nuclear arms and the realization of a comprehensive nuclear test ban, in accordance with Article VI of this Treaty. It urges the nuclear-weapon states not party to this Treaty also to take nuclear disarmament measures.
3. The Government of Japan takes particular note of the Declarations in June 1968 of the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States concerning the security of non-nuclear-weapon states, as well as of Security Council Resolution 255 (1968), and hopes that the nuclear-weapon states will make further efforts towards effective measures for the security of non-nuclear-weapon states. It further urges all states, both nuclear-weapon states and non-nuclear-weapon states, to refrain, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, from the threat or use of force in their international relations involving either nuclear or non-nuclear weapons.
4. The Government of Japan is convinced that, for the well-being of all mankind, international cooperation with respect to the peaceful use of nuclear energy and the peaceful applications of nuclear explosions should be vigorously promoted in accordance with the provisions of this Treaty. It considers that peaceful nuclear activities in non-nuclear-weapon states party to the Treaty should in no way be hampered by this Treaty and also that Japan should not be discriminated against in favour of other states party to the Treaty in any aspect of such activities.
5. The Government of Japan appreciates the Declarations of the United Kingdom and the United States, both nuclear-weapon states, that they will accept the application of safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency to their peaceful nuclear activities. It urges the other nuclear-weapon states to take similar action.
6. The Government of Japan hopes that Review Conferences, as provided for in this Treaty, will continue to be held at regular intervals in order to ensure the appropriate operation of this Treaty». 
Other Actions Signature on deposit with London — 3 February 1970
Ratification on deposit with London — 8 June 1976
Ratification on deposit with Moscow — 8 June 1976
Signature on deposit with Washington — 3 February 1970
Ratification on deposit with Washington — 8 June 1976